Learn About Yellowstone Grizzlies
By Patrick O'Driscoll, USA TODAY
DENVER — Three decades after grizzly bears nearly died out in Yellowstone
National Park, federal officials announced on Thursday that the grizzlies
have recovered and will cease being a "threatened" species there.
The fierce predators, which total more than 500 animals in a 14,000-square-mile
region in and around the park, will be taken off the endangered-species
list by late April, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Director H. Dale Hall
said. The notice came seven weeks after the agency said it plans to remove
the area's gray wolves from the list by year's end.
"We are confident that the grizzly bear in Yellowstone will thrive,"
Deputy Interior Secretary Lynn Scarlett said.
Some conservation groups disagree. The Greater Yellowstone Coalition and
the Natural Resources Defense Council both claim climate change and human
encroachment threaten key foods and habitat for grizzlies, which coexist
poorly with people, reproduce slowly and need big, undeveloped areas to
live. The council threatened Thursday to sue for continued federal protection.
The National Wildlife Federation hailed the announcement as proof the
Endangered Species Act works.
"It's a testament to the resilience of grizzly bears," northern
Rockies director Tom France said. "Protections are certainly in place
to (preserve) habitat."
State agencies in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming will manage the bear population,
which could be hunted in some areas outside the national park if annual
deaths from all causes, natural and human, don't exceed 9% of females
and 15% of males.
Chris Servheen, Fish and Wildlife's grizzly recovery chief, said no state
has plans for allowing hunting yet. "Hunting will in no way ever
threaten the future of Yellowstone grizzly bears," Servheen added.
An estimated 50,000 grizzlies once roamed the western half of the continent.
Hunting, settlement and further habitat loss pushed the species to the
brink in the contiguous 48 states. In 1975 about 136 remained in the Yellowstone
area when they were listed as threatened.
Today, Yellowstone's is the largest of five populations totaling about
1,200 grizzlies in the contiguous USA. The others, still on the protected
list, are in the Glacier National Park region and Cabinet-Yaak Mountains
of Montana, Selkirk Mountains of Idaho and northern Cascades of Washington.
Critics' chief concerns are loss of habitat and food sources. The Yellowstone
bears rely heavily on the pine nuts of whitebark pines, which are being
decimated by pine beetles and blister rust, a plant disease. Rising temperatures
have allowed the beetles, which go after lodgepole pine at lower elevations,
to go higher and attack whitebarks.
"Grizzly bears eat a lot of things, from ants to buffalo," said
Louisa Willcox of the Natural Resources Defense Council. "But the
most important for this population is the whitebark pine. Global warming
is having a potentially devastating impact."
When bears are forced to seek food at lower elevations, they "get
killed in much higher numbers," said Michael Scott of the Yellowstone
Grizzlies no safer than average bears
The Yellowstone park population is coming off the endangered list and
might be hunted again.
By Bettina Boxall
Times Staff Writer
March 23, 2007
After more than 30 years of strict federal protection, the Yellowstone
population of grizzly bears is being removed from the endangered species
list by the Bush administration.
Formidable remnants of the wild frontier, the Yellowstone grizzlies,
living in and around the national park, have rebounded from fewer than
200 animals in 1975, when they were listed as a threatened species, to
about 600 today.
"There is simply no way to overstate what an amazing accomplishment
this is," Deputy Interior Secretary Lynn Scarlett said Thursday of
the grizzly's comeback.
The move means that for the first time in three decades, grizzlies could
soon be hunted on a limited basis in some parts of the Yellowstone region
— outside the park — where the largest population of grizzlies
in the lower 48 states roams across thousands of square miles of mostly
federal wild lands.
Were it not for the sanctuary of the park, the Yellowstone bears undoubtedly
would have vanished, victims of hunting and clashes with humans who unwittingly
attracted them with open garbage dumps and then took a rifle out to settle
Although environmentalists agreed the bear numbers have climbed to a
heartening degree, some criticized the Yellowstone delisting, warning
that climate change is reducing a vital food source and human population
growth is increasing the chances of lethal run-ins.
"We're going to take action to fight this," said Louisa Willcox,
Wild Bears Project manager for the Natural Resources Defense Council.
"It's ill conceived and premature."
According to federal wildlife officials, there are 1,100 to 1,400 of
the iconic creatures in the lower 48 states. Four populations in northern
Montana and in parts of Idaho and Washington will remain protected under
the Endangered Species Act.
There are about 30,000 grizzlies in Alaska and another 25,000 in Canada.
The Yellowstone grizzly bear joins a short list of high-profile species,
including the bald eagle and the gray wolf, that the federal government
is moving to take off the list.
The key to the bears' success is all the money and attention they've
gotten, said Chris Servheen, grizzly bear recovery coordinator for the
Fish and Wildlife Service.
"The act works," he said. "I'm lucky to work on a species
that is big and flashy, but a lot of people don't have that luxury."
Wildlife managers have spent $24 million over the last 25 years on grizzly
"It's really important to have this as a success story," Servheen
said. "I'm regretting groups [for whom] it's never good enough. Some
people always want more."
The image of an angry grizzly standing taller than a man — a fierce,
untamable force of nature — runs though Western lore.
There were more than 50,000 of them in the lower 48 states in 1800. By
the mid-1970s, they had been hounded and hunted to near-extinction, their
numbers reduced to fewer than 1,000.
They rebounded in the Yellowstone region because the killing stopped.
Hunting was banned. Open garbage pits were closed, reducing the human
encounters that had so often left the grizzly dead.
Sloppy food storage in campgrounds was curtailed. The Forest Service
ended sheep grazing in prime bear habitat, reducing livestock losses that
enraged ranchers and led to illegal bear killings.
"People do things differently now than when the bear was first listed,"
The move, which will be published March 29 in the Federal Register and
take effect a month after that, will turn over management of Yellowstone
grizzlies living outside the park to Wyoming, Montana and Idaho. Bears
inside the park will continue to be managed by the National Park Service.
The states have signaled that they may allow hunting of the grizzlies
outside the park, but that would have to occur within strict mortality
limits established by federal biologists.
"Hunting will in no way ever threaten the future of the Yellowstone
grizzly," Servheen said, predicting that only a handful of hunting
licenses would be issued.
Under the action, a 9,200-square-mile conservation area will be established
that encompasses the habitat of most of the bears. Within that area, activities
that could hurt the population — such as new campsite development
or livestock grazing — will be restricted by federal land managers.
The grizzly numbers will also be watched, so if they start to dip, federal
scientists can recommend steps to stop the slide. "There are checks
and balances built into the management system to respond," Servheen
Willcox called the delisting a disappointment, saying Yellowstone grizzlies
are facing increasing pressure.
"There are more and more homes and more subdivisions and sprawl,"
she said. "The more human-bear interaction, the more conflicts and
the more dead bears there are."
Moreover, she warned, climate-change models show sharp drops in an important
grizzly food source, whitebark pine.
Craig Kenworthy, conservation director of the Greater Yellowstone Coalition,
said that although his group would like to see the bears taken off the
list, he was concerned there would not be adequate monitoring of the population
or its food sources. He also worried that a change in Forest Service planning
rules would make it harder to gauge the effect of activities that could
harm bear habitat.
"It will be possible to be nibbled to death by ducks," he said.
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